There are many 避孕方法的种类, each with its own benefits and risks.
Choosing the right one depends upon your personal circumstances. It’s important to think about how reliably you think you can use each form of contraception and how you plan to protect yourself from sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
你还需要考虑其他一些因素, 包括你的病史, 你对月经变化有什么看法, 你多久做爱一次, 如果你刚生了孩子.
It also helps to look at how 有效的 each method of birth control is, 所以你得到了一个你满意的避孕水平.
What criteria is considered for hormonal contraception?
Hormonal contraception like the combined pill and 节育贴片es contains estrogen, which affects many different physiological processes within the body. 对一些女性来说, taking estrogen is not recommended as it can increase the likelihood of developing some health conditions.
You may not be suitable for the combined pill if you:
如果你不能服用雌激素, there are plenty of other contraceptives that may be suitable, 包括只含孕激素的药丸, an intrauterine device (sometimes called a coil) or condoms.
You must use contraception correctly for it to be fully 有效的. You need to be confident that you will take the contraceptive pill at around the same time every day, or fit a condom or diaphragm before starting to have sex, 每一次. If you fail to do this even once, you could become pregnant.
If you think you might struggle to use one of these methods correctly, you may be better suited to contraception that works by itself once it’s been administered, 就像注射一样, 植入物, 宫内节育器或贴片.
Some forms of contraception can make your periods stop or become lighter, 重, 或不规则, and you may want to consider this when deciding which is best for you.
- 口服避孕药, 节育贴片, 国际单位, and the contraceptive injection can all cause lighter 或不规则 periods.
- IUDs can reduce the duration and intensity of menstruation.
Barrier 避孕方法 like a diaphragm or condoms do not affect periods.
如果你刚生了孩子, you’ll need to use contraception straight away if you don’t want to become pregnant again. You can become pregnant even when you are breastfeeding and before your period returns.
在决定使用哪种避孕措施时, 你需要考虑所有通常的因素, 比如你的病史和生活方式.
If you are breastfeeding or had complications during your pregnancy or labour, your doctor may advise you to wait a short time before using some types of hormonal contraception.
“More than 1 million STIs are acquired every day worldwide.”
衣原体等性传播感染, hepatitis and HIV are easily spread by sexual contact. 性传播感染会引起阴道分泌物等症状, 生殖器溃疡，腹部疼痛, but you could still have an STI even if you have no symptoms.
有些性传播感染会严重损害你的健康, 影响你将来生孩子的机会, 甚至会增加患癌症的风险.
It is essential for your current and future health that you protect yourself against STIs.
避孕套 the only contraceptive that both prevents pregnancy and protects against STIs.
避孕 that doesn’t rely on you remembering to take it or use it correctly is the most 有效的 at preventing pregnancy. 避孕植入物，宫内节育器和国际单位都是 超过99% 有效的.
如果使用得当, 注射, 口服避孕药, and the 节育贴片 are 超过99% 有效的. 然而, the possibility of user error with these methods (like forgetting to take a pill or not getting your injection on time) means that they are generally 低于95% 有效的.
避孕套 98%有效 如果使用正确，每次都是如此.
含有杀精剂的隔膜是 92 - 96%有效 如果使用正确，每次都是如此.
If you have unprotected sex, you are at risk of becoming pregnant.
It is always better to have reliable contraceptive cover before having sex, but if you do have sex without contraception or your contraception fails during sex (for example, 如果你的避孕套破了), 你也不想怀孕, 你可以获得紧急避孕措施.
There are two types of emergency contraception: an oral tablet often called a ‘事后避孕药’，然后…… 宫内节育器.
A doctor or nurse fits an IUD by passing it through the vagina and cervix, into the uterus. An IUD provides ongoing contraception and can stay in place for up to ten years. 阅读更多关于宫内节育器的信息.
The 事后避孕药 is 有效的 up to three days after having unprotected sex. It works by interrupting your natural hormones to stop your ovary from releasing an egg so that you can’t become pregnant.
The 事后避孕药 can cause side effects such as headaches, 恶心想吐, or sickness (if you’re sick within two hours of taking the 事后避孕药, return to your healthcare provider as you may need another dose).
使用紧急避孕措施后, you may wish to talk to your doctor or nurse about reviewing your usual 避孕方法 to make sure you are using the right method for you.